Coronaviruses belong to a family known as Coronaviridae, which, under an electron microscope, looks like ring rings. They are named for these spikes that form a halo “crown” (Latin for corona crown) around the viral envelope.
Coronaviruses contain a strand of RNA (as opposed to DNA) inside the envelope, and as a virus, it cannot reproduce without hijacking its machinery unless it enters living cells. Spikes in the viral envelope allow corona viruses to bind to cells, giving them a way to open a door with C4. Once ingested, they turn the cell into a virus factory – the RNA and some enzymes are used by the cell’s molecular machinery to produce more viruses, which are sent from the cell to other cells. Thus, the cycle begins anew.
Corona virus in films: scenes from around the world
Such viruses are commonly found in animals ranging from livestock to domestic animals, such as bats and bats. Some people get sick, like colds. When they jump into humans, they can cause fever, respiratory infections, and inflammation in the lungs. In people who are not immune, such as the elderly or those who are infected with HIV-AIDS, such viruses can cause severe respiratory infections, leading to pneumonia and death.
Over the past two decades, SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) and MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) have been the most frequent pathogens for coronaviruses. Although these viruses are easily transmitted from man to man, they are suspected to have passed through various animal intermediaries: sars cats and MERS dromedary camels. SARS, shown in the early 2000s, has affected more than 8,000 people and caused over 800 deaths. MERS, which appeared in early 2010, has affected more than 2,500 people and caused more than 850 deaths.
What is COVID-19?
In the early days of the outbreak, the media, medical experts and health experts described the “coronavirus” as a catch-all term. But coronavirus is a type of virus, which we explain in the section above rather than a disease.
The World Health Organization has named the new disease COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) to resolve confusion and make reporting more efficient. “It is important to have a name to prevent the use of other names that are inaccurate or tainted,” said Tedros Adanom Gabrielos, director general of the WHO. “It also provides a common format for future coronavirus outbreaks.”
The novel was named Coronavirus by the Coronavirus Study Group, part of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. The novel coronavirus – the cause of the disease – is known as SARS-CoV-2. The virus is recognized by the group as a sister to the Species Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronaviruses (SARS-CoVs) that caused the SARS outbreak in 2002-2003.
Coronavirus is officially named SARS-CoV-2.
The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is officially named COVID-19.
Where did the virus come from?
The virus appears to have originated in the Chinese city of Wuhan, 650 miles south of Beijing, with a population of over 11 million. The spread of Huanan Seafood, which sells fish, and a panoply of meat from other animals, including bats, snakes, and pangolins, were spread in early January.
The prestigious medical journal The Lancet published an extensive summary of the clinical features of patients with the disease until December 1, 2019. The first patient to be identified has not been brought to market, and the virus may have originated elsewhere and transported to the market, where it was able to proliferate or re-emerge from human to animal. Chinese authorities closed the market on January 1.
Markets have been implicated in the origin and spread of viral diseases in previous epidemics, including SARS and MERS. The vast majority of people who have so far confirmed their arrival with the new coronavirus virus have been arriving in the Hunan seafood market in recent weeks. The market seems to be an integral part of the puzzle, but research into the potential source and linking a “patient zero” to the initial spread is ongoing.
An early report, published in the Journal of Medical Virology on January 22, suggested that snakes were the most likely wildlife habitat for SARS-CoV-2, but two days later in January, two studies disproved the work. 23. “We haven’t seen enough evidence to suggest a snake reservoir for the Wuhan corona virus,” said Peter Dassak, president of the nonprofit Eco Health Alliance, which conducts research on the relationship between humans and animals.
“This work is really interesting, but the genome of this new virus is comparable to all the other known coronaviruses. All of its closest relatives have their origins in mammals, especially bats. I think we’re not close. “
Another team of Chinese scientists uploaded a paper to the Bioprevrprint, studying the viral genetic code and comparing it to the previous SARS corona virus and other bat coronaviruses. They found that the genetic similarity runs deep: the virus shares 80% of its genes with the previous SARS virus, and 96% of the genes with the bat corona virus. Importantly, the study showed that the virus can enter and hijack the cells as SARS did.
The spread of SARS-CoV-2 is also involved in the small and juicy mammal ant-eating pangolin. According to the New York Times, it may be one of the most trafficked animals in the world, sold at the Hunan seafood market. Although the virus originated in bats, it may still be hidden in the palm of the animal before it can spread to humans. Although the full details have not yet been published, coronaviruses similar to SARS-CoV-2 have been previously detected in pangolins.
All good science builds on previous discoveries – and before we know more about the basic biology of SARS-CoV-2 being responsible for animal vector transmission – but the earliest indications are that the virus is similar to that found in bats.
How many confirmed cases and deaths have been reported?
After the virus was discovered in late 2019, it has spread to more than 50 countries. The number of cases and deaths has been steadily increasing since early January. This handy online tool is the best way to keep track of the spread of the virus worldwide, and it collects data from a variety of sources, including the CDC, WHO and Chinese health professionals, and is maintained by Johns Hopkins University.
Confirmed cases and deaths have been reported in China’s Hubei province. However, there has been a secondary explosion in South Korea, Italy and Iran, with the Diamond Princess cruise ship detonated in the Japanese port of Yokohama for 14 days in February. 705 people on board the ship were infected with the coronavirus.
How does coronavirus spread?
This is one of the key questions that researchers are still working hard to answer. The first infection may have been the result of transmitting from animal to human, but confirmation that the human-to-human transmission was in late January. As the virus spread, local transmission was seen around the world. Some people at risk are those who work in health care.
Raina MacIntyre, a professor of global biosecurity at the University of New South Wales, Australia, said, “The main concern is the hospital outbreak seen with the SARS and MERS coronaviruses. “To prevent this outbreak and to protect health workers, we need to have molecular triage and infection control.”